Cloughjordan Ecovillage – Another World is Possible for Belfast

Lessons for Belfast Urban Regeneration at Féile an Phobail 2017

By Peadar Kirby & Peter Doran

President Michael D Higgins at Cloughjordan Ecovillage on Earth Day 2017

While Ireland was living through the most severe economic collapse of its history since independence, a group of pioneering people were sowing the seeds of a new society through founding the ecovillage of Cloughjordan in County Tipperary. Seeking to model sustainable living for the 21st century, the ecovillagers conceived their project during the boom years of Ireland’s Celtic Tiger in the late 1990s and early 2000s, but by the time the infrastructure was being laid in 2008 and the first houses built in 2009, the Irish banking and construction sectors were in freefall and the ecovillage became the country’s biggest building site.

Now with 55 houses built and a population of around 100 adults and 35 children, Cloughjordan has been recognised as one of Europe’s most successful “anticipatory experiences” showing the way to a low-carbon society. As an educational charity, it draws thousands of people a year to learn the lessons of this pioneering community. Central to those lessons are the combination of some modern technologies that help lower emissions, embedded in a resilient community that seeks to foster a rich sense of interdependency, not without its tensions. Nevertheless, the deep co-operative principles that underly the experiment also suggest new forms of life that question the logic of our dominant economic system and, perhaps, offer lessons for sustainable urban regeneration in our own Urban Village experiments across the North. At least one co-housing experiment is already planned for the Belfast area.

On Earth Day, in April, President Michael D Higgins, lauded the founders of the Cloughjordan Ecovillage who came together some 20 years ago in the Central Hotel in Dublin “to share their dreams of what might be – a more ethical and sustainable life, lived in a community which isn’t easy and can have difficulties.” He was dedicating a new amphitheatre named after one of Cloughjordan’s most famous sons,Thomas MacDonagh, the teacher, revolutionary and poet who was one of the signatories of the 1916 Proclamation. Higgins quoted MacDonagh observing that the educator had understood that “you must be able to have a kind of integrity of imagination such as will allow . . . all of the passions of the heart…”

“It’s the first anniversary of the Paris Agreement, and one of the things that strikes one, and particularly at my stage of life, is that very often you can look back at whole reams of words that really are quite distracting unless they are turned into reality…But here in the ecovillage so much is being turned into practical achievements,” added the President.

The lessons of Cloughjordan will be shared with an audience at the Féile an Phobail’s Discussion and Debate programme in St Mary’s University College on the Falls Road on Thursday evening 10 August (17.00) when a panel made up of founding member of Cloughjordan, Davie Philip, the founder of the Global Ecovillage Network, Albert Bates, and former Cloughjordan resident Lynn Finnegan will share their experience with Peter Doran.

Another World is Possible and its up and running in Tipperary

 

Among ecovillages, Cloughjordan is unusual in that its founders decided to integrate it into an existing urban settlement. They chose the small village of Cloughjordan (around 500 people) in county Tipperary. A site of 67 acres (27 hectares) was available on the south side of its main street, on a train line, and some leading people in the local community recognised it as an opportunity for regenerating a village that was in decline. Before buying the land, members of the ecovillage project worked with children in the local schools and with the residents of Cloughjordan to win support for developing the project.

Cloughjordan ecovillage therefore models not just ecological sustainability but also rural regeneration, drawing visitors to the existing village and fostering a new social, economic, and cultural dynamism. Readers of The Irish Times voted Cloughjordan one of the 10 best places to live in Ireland. The ecovillage embodies the important message that low-carbon living does not mean reverting to the privations of the past, but can be the catalyst for drawing together a diverse group of people who, through their wide range of talents, make it a lively and interesting place to live.

Integrating with the Natural Environment

The greenfield site that was bought behind Cloughjordan village was developed in a way unique for an Irish urban settlement. The village’s planners confined the residential area to about one-third of the site closest to the main street, while devoting a further area beyond that to support services and amenities including a district heating system, an eco-enterprise centre, allotments for growing food, and a community farm. Ecovillagers have planted native varieties of apple trees in this area; throughout the village, various varieties of herbs and fruit bushes create an “edible landscape.” An area of 12 acres (5 hectares) devoted to farming in a biodynamic way constitutes one of Ireland’s few Community Support Agriculture (CSA) projects.

On the final third of the site, devoted to woodland, villagers planted 17,000 trees in 2011—mainly native species such as oak, ash, Scots pine, birch, rowan, cherry, hazel, and alder. This is regarded as an amenity area for visitors and a contribution to promoting biodiversity. A labrynth, built according to an ancient Celtic layout, provides a quiet space for reflection amid the woodland. According to the ecovillage website (www.thevillage.ie), “the community’s land use plan is based on the principles of environmental and ecological diversity, productive landscape and permaculture.” The design of common and private areas includes corridors for the movement of wildlife, and the composting of organic matter to regenerate the soil and avoiding toxic or other harmful substances is strongly recommended to all members. Since all are responsible for the upkeep of the common areas, the community organizes regular periods of communal work on the land (the Gaelic word “meitheal” is used for these, recalling the traditional practice of communal work among Irish farmers).

Central to the success of the project is the combination of low-energy technologies and robust community living. The Village Ecological Charter, drawn up by members, contains the guidelines for the development of the built and natural environments so as “to reduce the impact of the project on the natural environment and so promoting sustainable development.” This includes detailed and specific targets for energy supply and use, plans for land management, water and solid waste, construction (including materials, light and air, and ventilation), and community issues such as transport, social and communal facilities, and noise and light pollution.

Towards Low-Carbon Living

Combining both cutting-edge technologies and some traditional technologies gives a rich and unique mix to the ecovillage. One of its most innovative features is its district heating system, the only one in Ireland powered by renewable sources of energy. This supplies all the heating and hot water for every house in the ecovillage, using no fossil fuels as primary energy sources and emitting no greenhouse gas emissions. (Electricity supply to drive the pumps and for other purposes is taken from the public mains at present, but there are plans for on-site generation in due course.) It saves an estimated 113.5 tonnes annually of carbon that would be emitted by conventional heating systems for the number of houses served. Though the ecovillage has the largest bank of solar panels in Ireland, these haven’t yet been commissioned due to faults in their installation; the district heating system relies on waste wood from a sawmill about an hour away.

Members buy sites from the cooperative which owns the estate (of which all site owners must be members), building their own houses to their own designs, in keeping with the principles and specifications of the Ecological Charter.

  • The ecovillage includes Ireland’s first member-owned and operated CSA farm. Some two-thirds of ecovillage households are members and the rest come from the wider Cloughjordan community. Currently it grows 4 acres (1.6 ha) of vegetables, 1 acre (0.4 ha) of cereals, 1 acre of green manure (humus building), and 6 acres (2.43 ha) in permanent pasture. Members pay a monthly fee (around €130 for a household of typically two adults and two children) and can take what food they want from a central distribution point that is supplied three times a week, all year around. Two part-time coordinators act as the main producers, are paid from the farm budget, and are answerable to the farm board which is elected by members. They rely on WWOOFers (Worldwide Opportunities on Organic Farms) and interns as well as on the voluntary labour of members when called upon.
  • Not only does the form of food production and distribution link the producer and consumer in a deeply interactive relationship, but it changes practices of consumption since members rely on whatever food is available according to the season, the weather, and the amounts planted. The farm also contributes to the resilience of the ecovillage itself, lessening reliance on commercial producers (often very distant), improving greatly the quality of food consumed, and enhancing skills and practices among members. It recently returned to the use of horses to plough the land to avoid the compacting that resulted from the use of tractors, and has hosted public demonstrations of horse-drawn ploughing.
  • The farm also links in with other projects through which ecovillagers earn a livelihood, such as the award-winning Riot Rye bakery and baking school, members who turn the food produced in the farm into tasty wholesome meals for ecovillagers and visitors, and the Green Enterprise centre with Ireland’s only community-based Fab Lab (fabrication laboratory with 3-D printers). Ireland’s largest cohousing project is being developed in the ecovillage to offer low-cost accommodation to those who want to come and sample life or live in the ecovillage. All these exemplify the “ecosystem of innovation” through which synergies grow, enhancing each of the elements of ecovillage life.

Community Resilience

Beyond the technologies, both ancient and new, what is essential to the character of the ecovillage is that it is an intentional community. The dense web of interconnectedness that characterises relationships is strengthened and at times tested through a myriad of different kinds of activities, from the often tense discussions attempting to reach a community consensus on key issues to the enjoyment of community meals and parties where rich encounters take place. A special Process group exists to facilitate community interactions, and the monthly community meeting establishes a period in which any member can voice any issue that is troubling them, including issues of grievance and pain caused within the community. Successful community, then, depends not on avoiding or minimising pain and tensions but rather on facilitating their expression in an atmosphere of mutual respect. A diverse membership, which includes professional facilitators, counsellors, and psychotherapists, helps this process.

Finding a governance structure that reflects its values is a particular challenge for any intentional community, particularly one as complex and multifaceted as an ecovillage. By 2007, the existing organisational structure of Cloughjordan ecovillage based on multiple committees was under strain, unable to deal effectively with the many tasks and challenges facing the project. This led members to turn for support to consultants Angela Espinosa and Jon Walker, who promote the use of the Viable Systems Model (VSM) in cooperatives and large communities looking for alternatives to traditional hierarchies. This resulted in the restructuring of the ecovillage governance structures according to the principles of VSM, identifying the primary activities (PA) of the project and establishing groups to promote them. Two PAs exist in early 2016, one on education and the other on land use. A Development PA, looking after the development of the built environment, has recently been disbanded as it wasn’t working well, and a replacement is being put in place. Each PA has a number of task groups within them responsible for different aspects of the primary activity.

The PAs are known as System One groups in VSM. Supporting these are what are called the meta-systemic management functions, Systems Two to Five, each of which fulfills essential functions in the organisation. These include a Process group to oversee the smooth functioning of the whole structure and to resolve problems as they arise, and a coordination team drawing together the activities of all the various groups and providing a monthly reporting mechanism to members. System Four involves keeping a close eye on what is happening in the wider society so as to strategically relate to developments. This led to the establishment of a Navigation group. Finally, System Five involves oversight and direction of the whole project, and includes the Board of Directors and the monthly members’ meeting supplemented by an Identity group which deals with issues of membership and purpose. VSM allows a horizontal rather than a hierarchical management of the project, which ensures that bottom-up initiatives flourish while at the same time the coherence of the project as a whole holds together.

International Recognition

Cloughjordan ecovillage faces many challenges. It is still only in its early phase of growth with more than 70 sites yet to sell, which will draw in new members and more than double its population. Yet already it is winning national and international recognition. Cloughjordan won the National Green Award for Ireland’s greenest community three years in a row from 2012 to 2014 and won a gold medal award at the 2013 International Awards for Liveable Communities (LivCom), also known as the Green Oscars, hosted by Xiamen in the People’s Republic of China and supported by the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP). The Milesecure consortium of 15 research centres throughout Europe was funded by the European Commission to learn the lessons for European policy of how to transition to a low-carbon future. As part of its research, it examined 1,500 projects all around Europe to identify the most successful “anticipatory experiences” to help guide EU policy. Among the 23 finally selected was Cloughjordan ecovillage and it was the only project to be highlighted in the “manifesto for human-based governance of secure and low-carbon energy transitions” that the consortium wrote as one outcome of its three-year project (see www.milesecure2050.eu). In these ways, the project is helping establish itself as a beacon for the challenging future that confronts humanity.

The Féile panel

Davie Philip was a founding member of both FEASTA: the Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability and Sustainable Projects Ireland Ltd the company behind the ecovillage project in Cloughjordan where he now lives. Albert Bates graduated from Syracuse University and New York Law School. As an environmental litigator he represented victims of atomic tests, nuclear power and weapons workers, military veterans exposed to human experiments, and Native Americans. In 1995 he retired from law to teach permaculture and found the Global Ecovillage Network. Lynn Finnegan is the founder of Freckle, an independently published magazine that features what is often hidden but most essential about people and landscapes in Northern Ireland, written and photographed with passion and eloquence. She also works regularly at international negotiations on environment and development. The Panel will be chaired by Peter Doran of the QUB School of Law.

Peadar Kirby is Professor Emeritus of International Politics and Public Policy at the University of Limerick. He is the author of many books on models of development in Ireland and Latin America. His recent books include Adapting to Climate Change: Governance Challenges, co-edited with Deiric Ó Broin (Glasnevin, 2015) and Transitioning to a Low-Carbon Society: Degrowth, austerity and wellbeing, co-edited with Ernest Garcia and Mercedes Martinez-Iglesias (Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming in 2016). He is writing a book on pathways to a low-carbon society to be published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2017. He was one of the first residents of Cloughjordan ecovillage in 2009 and is currently chair of the Board of Directors of the ecovillage.

Peter Doran is lecturer in sustainable development and environmental law at the Queens University Belfast School of Law and a long-time advocate of equitable and sustainable development. He has just published A Political Economy of Attention, Mindfulness and Consumerism: Reclaiming the Mindful Commons (Routledge 2017) and has been actively involved with Zero Waste North West in taking forward a circular economy strategy for Derry and Strabane District Council. 

 

 

 

 

 

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  • Am Ghobsmacht

    I like this kinda stuff (self sustainability) but I think it suffers from an image problem, as soon as you add the word ‘eco’ to something then a lot of people switch off.

    I’d rather it were labelled under ‘common sense’ e.g. recycling beer bottles;

    We throw out tens of thousands of them each weekend and then on the Monday some fella at Diageo or InBev has to send an email to China to order thousands of more while we pay men to collect the discarded bottles and either melt them or bury them.

    Common sense says reuse them, like we did years ago and like many other countries still do.

    But if you spin it as ‘low carbon’ or wot-not then a lot of people will just not be interested.

    I digress….there’s so much more we could be doing to make the quality of life and health in urban areas so much better and in that regard I’m all ears and I wish the project and community well.

  • The worm!

    Would have been a much more appropriate article six days ago!

  • Granni Trixie

    I would be interested to know if the poster has made headway in influencing his party (SF) policies with his obvious interest in enviromental matters. May I say I was not inclined to be interested in recycling etc but changed due to the impact of other peoples enthusiasm and practices. Its how cultural change happens.

  • Zeno

    “I’d rather it were labelled under ‘common sense’ e.g. recycling beer bottles;

    We throw out tens of thousands of them each weekend”

    I’d love to go to a party in your house.

  • Zeno
  • Granni Trixie

    Crickey. Wish you hadn’t linked me to that info. I don’t know if I can change my ways yet again (I even police the family in how they use the blue bin nowadays). My point was however that I believe that the general population is convinced to conserve resources less by intellectual arguments than by leadership by example.

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    Bloody plastic:

  • Zeno

    I know what you mean, but the whole thing is like a box ticking exercise that gives a nod to the protection of the environment.
    If the environ was that important Prawns would be illegal.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/6189870.stm

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    My word.
    Surely we can get long term unemployed people to peel prawns one day a week?

  • Ben De Hellenbacque

    I take your point but what is also ‘offputting’ to many, I imagine, is the commitment that potential residents will have to make to what might appear to some as a commune with long term shared responsibilities.
    Living in a condominium I am quite depressed by the ‘someone else will clear/clean it up’ mentality among some of my neighbours. The people who clear/clean it up are the more responsible occupants. Those survival/reality broadcasts set in wildernesses show the innate selfishness and lack of co-operation of our species. But then that might be intentional contestant selection to make good telly.

  • Dan

    Having visited the site, stayed overnight and spoken to locals, there is a lot to be said for the ideals but also the real world application with common sense attached. For example they wanted to be walking distance to schools and public transport, so decided to locate next to an existing village with a school and transport links. There are some issues, like many of the residents need to commute to Limerick daily, some in fighting, many with financial problems due to the downturn and the fact they expected their shares in the land would bring rewards. They have completed many things right, and they have learned the hard way from some mistakes. I would recommend anyone interested to look at the courses they run, and go for a visit and stay in the hostel. I am sure it would not be suitable for my lifestyle, but they have proved real world solutions to idealistic suggestions

  • Zeno

    Nah, that would mean using common sense and that went extinct a good few years ago.

  • Dónall

    The problem doesn’t lie with the word, it wouldn’t matter what you called it, projects like Cloughjordan are relying on good will for publicity and they don’t have the billions available to them that big business and agriculture have to hammer their message home.

    Seed firms are currently copy righting their genetically modified seeds and flooding the market with them. Tiny projects like Cloughjordan are saving the native seeds which can never be copyrighted.

    Ecological projects get a ‘bad press’ if you like because they do not have the billions of pounds available to pay for ‘good press’ in our so-called independent media outlets.

    Fact is the whole country should be living like Cloughjordan.

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    Hi Donall (sorry, no accent on my keyboard)

    I agree emphatically with most of what you write (especially the seeds!) but I disagree with your main thrust because ironically I think it is precisely the marketing aspect of such things (which boils down to big money) that has worn out the prefix ‘eco’ or whatever other word that would have been used instead.

    Do you remember when double glazing was becoming mainstream? I don’t ever recall the environment being a factor, it was simply about transition and money to the extent that nowadays when we say ‘windows’ we expect double glazed.

    The house that I’m renovating, I hope to make it as self sufficient as possible but should I ever sell it, I plan to sell it as a warm, cheap to run house with a big veggie patch, NOT as an eco house as I fear it would immediately put a lot of people off.

    But yes, if only the whole country was living like Cloughjordan, .

  • William Kinmont

    Eu rules , same Eu environment rule makers brought the renewable heating scheme into existance making it economic to ship trees from canada to uk power plants by the boat load. trees that would otherwise still be standing. Similar EU rules on slurry on farms here meant thousands of tons of concrete being poured to facillate storage so it could be spread all in one lump instead of diluting the effect gradually over the year. Why are these things not thought through?

  • Oggins

    Bottles come from Fermanagh, cans from Wales.

    I would focus on improving the recycling of the bottles and glass over reusing them, we are no where near Mainland Europe for recycling. It makes greater economic sense and is better for the environment to have once use bottles. To force businesses to recycle bottles would cause extra costs. These costs would require machinery, people, vehicles which need energy and impact the environment. The amount of vehicle movements for recycling multi use bottles is huge. One of the reasons to go to one use bottles was because of the environment.

    What do we do with the less exotic beer brands from Aldi? Do we make them take them back and send to Germany? What about our fantastic craft suppliers?

    Like everything we need education and proper access to allow recycling. I take great pride in my recycling skills. I am a recycling ninja in my house. The bins the council in Belfast provide are fantastic. Now we need to start seeking how to recycle smarter on a larger scale. What is stage two. If other countries are buying waste because they can recycle it or use as energy, then we are doing something wrong.

    On a side note, my local off sales, the vintage does a fantastic 2 litre multi use bottles for beer. So you can go in and take what’s on tap… 😊😊😊

    On another note we need to actually address packaging in general. Use less in products, or use more recyclable packaging.

  • Oggins

    Fair play Dan, can I asked what made you go? Interest in the environment ? Building? Or a general curious mind?

  • Zeno

    There are an awful lot of strange decisions being made. Maybe we have stopped evolving and have started regressing.?

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    Where I now live (central europe) one pays an extra 10p per bottle when one buys a beer.

    When you take the bottle back you can either reclaim the 10p or offset it against your new beer/sparkling water.
    As the trucks deliver in crates they simply replace the crates of full bottles and replace them with empties and they go back to the brewery the way they came, no extra machinery required.

    In Germany they (I believe but 100% sure) have only 2 types of bottles which harmonises the entire scheme, so any brewery can reuse the other’s bottlenose us with our Guinness, grolsch and bud.

    Also, our craft breweries tend to use fairly similar bottles to the extent that if I were a craft brewer I’d probably be bin-hoaking a lot.

    Those 2 litre bottles, are they ‘growlers’?
    That’s a ruddy good idea though.

  • The worm!

    Just try telling people that the EU is an environmental disaster.

    Most people think they’re the champions of the environment.

    Crazy!

  • William Kinmont

    To mix metaphors is it too many cooks spoiling the gravy train. Simple basic environmental rules of 70s and 80s were excellent improvement largely because they were starting from zero so in order to continue to justify their existance rulemakers have tinkered into ever more complex areas that nobody can be fully aware of the consequences of.

  • William Kinmont

    i am not anti EU i think that an overarching body to co ordinate neighbouring nations and curb the extremes excellent .Nor do I think brexit will make things any simpler just two lots of ill thought out rules to deal with. If we have to have brexit perhaps this could be one small benefit of properly concieved environmental rules that dont do more harm than good sadly i imagine we are just adding mote cooks.

  • William Kinmont

    as a child the local supermarket had a big “silo” of cardboard boxes from their supplies that everyone used in stead of plastic bags. The boxes went home and put to a multitude of uses before probably being burnt for heat.

  • The worm!

    I would have a bit of contact with a few “environmental” organisations but unfortunately they still seem a bit in shock about Brexit and are kinda pining for Brussels when they should be lobbying like mad in Whitehall and having their say in whatever legislation will be brought in post-EU.

    Brexit should and could have made things simpler, it’s the faffing about and dragging of heels deliberately or otherwise that’s doing the damage.

  • William Kinmont

    Last year lightening struck an electricity transformer in our field causing it to split. Judging from the size of it and where the split occurred i estimate 2-4 gallons of oil may have leaked. Two months later the grass and hedge beneath showed no outward signs of harm but an official turned up to examine the area ,followed a few days later buy someone who marked out 2 areas of soil to be removed. Apparently oil avoids the laws of gravity as the areas were no where near the bottom of the pole. Some months after this an articulated lorry delivered a digger and dumper and another tipper took away the contaminated? soil to England apparently to be disposed of however soil is disposd of?. Some further months later the process was reversed with soil being brought to replace . Add to this the vans bringing workers and foremen coming separately , the survey to calculate the amount of replacement soil and the final visit to close the job how much fuel was burnt and leaked from lorries and digger to tick this box. Not that anyone dug anywhere near the oil spill.

  • Zeno

    I’m in IT, semi retired now, when Michael McGimpsey was Health Minister I had a period where I had about 2 months where I was free, and I knew from experience that my Doctor was still writing letters to the hospital and sending faxes if it was an emergency. I offered to move all of them over to email free of charge. I got a reply saying I would have to tender to the relevant department. Don’t get me wrong I had a small business and wanted to do some “civic duty” They could easily have checked my credentials. On a rough estimate I was only saving them £2 million a year. Never again.

  • William Kinmont

    sadly we are only able to reinforcing each others views without solving much. I too have had similar approaches rebuffed . i guess we are on here as airing our views at least helps us if no one else.

  • Zeno

    Yeah but when you get to the realisation that there is absolutely nothing you can do about even small stuff, it’s quite sad.

  • William Kinmont

    Think that many within these groups must be mesmerised by anything that is dressed up as eco or green. RHI was a masterclass , dressing up a scheme to cut down millions of mature trees that their was no other economic reason to fell as environmentally friendly and getting most green groups to champion it brilliant i suppose. Have a look at who owned aĺl these forests that until RHI hadnt much commercial value and you will see the same people championing the start of the renewable heat schemes.

  • Oggins

    The non German beers will be a single trip only bottle, they will be crushed and recycled. They are designed for that. Are you saying the Guinness bottle in Germany is different from ones from Ireland?

    I have a bit of experience (had worked in the beverage industry) and the carbon analysis would show that one trip only bottles are more environmental friendly as multi use bottles.

    Most multi use bottles have a life span of a about six trips at best. The energy and resource needed for this process is huge.

    They are growlers! Fantastic idea I would argue this would make a better idea. It sort of follows the same concept as shopping bags.

    As a kid we stayed in a camping site in France. It had a small take away shop for our frites (chips) and other food. But! You had to bring your own containers to take them back!! It wasn’t an eco site, it was just how he rolled!

  • The worm!

    RHI was a concept forced on us by bureaucrats, the scheme itself thought up by townies, and then checked and signed off by politicians.

    It was never going to be good was it!

  • Tochais Siorai

    Nah, put eco on it and stick €20k on the asking price. Cosy house with veggie patch gets standard – Eco gets premium.

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    20k!?

    I may have to re-appraise my view on this topic…

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    Naw, imported beers and the like are exempt I think.

    I found a few articles on google which said bottles can be reused 15 – 20 times.

    The clincher appears to be distance; it’s no good for Anhauser-Busch to jiggle bottles from all over The U.S. but it seems practical for breweries reasonably close to their market place (as is the case where I live).

  • Am Ghobsmacht

    But, that’s just a google search on my phone, hardly concrete evidence.

  • Oggins

    Well you would be glad to know that most of these beers are brewed by the big players local brewery or another brewer by license. So Saint James Gate brewery C’berg and bud by license. So there could be a local brewery in Germany that brews the American Bud.

    The bottles themselves are subject to how there managed and used. Stored in cold conditions, then brought into a process and cleaned in a warm process, creating heat shock. Some bottles have a good life span, whilst others, don’t. It’s all down to the spec and how they are made.

    I honestly feel the old growler should be something encouraged. Less packaging, very green!

  • Oggins

    I expect a full report on my desk by next week AG 😊

  • Dónall

    Our problem as a society is that matters of economy often take precedence over matters of human health and well being. After all the economy is a human mechanism designed for the well-being of humans. Once the economic considerations are actually hurting humans then it is time to shift the focus.
    As Tochas Síoraí has pointed out below if you sold your beautiful eco-friendly house complete with organic vegetable patch you could get £20K extra, which would be a cheap price for the 10 years you would cut off your life.

  • Tochais Siorai

    And my consultancy fee is only 10 percent. It’s a win win!

  • Doctor M

    We now have electronic referrals but the hospital prints them out for us! Then sometimes scans them back in!!

  • Zeno

    Jeez.