Boston College Archive and the maintenance of our “collective dissociative amnesia…”

6 views

Ahead of tonight’s Spotlight programme a good report from Greater Boston and Emily Rooney talking to Jack Dunn of Boston College on the controversy over the Belfast Archive and the sequestration of some by the PSNI…

There was always a possibility that it would come to this. But after the 1998 peace accords there was such good will that emanated from Northern Ireland that no one thought that British Law Enforcement would take that step…

Interesting perspective, and it pinpoints a key weakness in the archive project, ie that it relied on good behaviour of other players rather the protections of US law…

As for the cops, Matt Baggott made it clear last year in his interview with Alan

“It’s not because I want to hear them. It’s because a modern police service operates within the rule of law. And Article 2 is very clear we have to pursue effective investigations into murders and unsolved murders. And when there’s evidence becomes available we have an absolute duty to take every investigative line to pursue where the evidence takes us.

“The decision making on whether there is an evidential possibility of a charge being brought or whether there is a public interest in doing it is not mine. And I think there is still a confusion particularly since devolution is so new about the role of the police. Our role is simply to gather fact, to investigate crime, and then present that to the Public Prosecution Service.

“So whether it’s a Boston tape, or whether it’s a historical murder, there is no amnesty in Northern Ireland but there is the law. And the law is part of the devolution of policing and justice and my job as the impartial Chief Constable is make sure we pursue that impartially.”

Sinn Fein has wasted no time in getting a tagging campaign going online, branding the project as a ‘touting programme’ matching a more traditional street warning (threatening to some):

Ed Moloney has a statement on his blog, which lays out the views of an American judge underwriting the academic integrity of the project:

Only one other person aside from myself and Dr McIntyre has read the full archive from beginning to end. That was Judge William Young who presided over the first hearing dealing with Boston College’s attempt to get the British subpoenas dismissed at the Federal District Court in Boston in December-January 2011/2012.

This is what he said about the archive: “This was a bona fide academic exercise of considerable intellectual merit.”

And he went on: “[These materials] are of interest – valid academic interest. They’re of interest to the historian, sociologist, the student of religion, the student of youth movements, academics who are interested in insurgency and counterinsurgency, in terrorism and counterterrorism. They’re of interest to those who study the history of religions.”

So how does one reconcile Mr Adams’ wild and unsubstantiated accusations based on almost complete ignorance of the archive’s contents with the opinion of a disinterested American judge who has actually read the entire archive? I don’t think it is possible to do so.

Indeed how? One way is to see it all as an ongoing war, with enemies whose motives can never, under any circumstances be trusted. That way we never have worry about looking at the telling detail.

As veteran columnist Fionnuala O’Connor observed this morning:

The southern enemies, the enemy at large, will now hate them more than ever if possible, but no help for that. Brazen it out, take the war to the adversary, and polish up your grievance: the old tactics stood up well.

Just so. But as one commenter on Malachi O’Doherty’s Facebook page noted regarding the effective demise of the Belfast Archive, the deeper political element is more interesting:

The protagonists in the ongoing conflict in Ireland may not have the maturity to deal with truth, the ugly, sickening reality of human action, the thoughts and behaviours which make us all human and inhumane – they may not want us to hear, that which they believe we need protected from.

Someone clearly wants to maintain a collective dissociative amnesia as part of some mechanism to protect their history, and more importantly perhaps, their own current status and positions of power. Denial is a human defence mechanism, and humans are very resistant to having it challenged.

Aye, but here. Tell me? Whatever happened to the good will and ‘spirit of 98′..?

, , , ,

  • Anaximander

    Mick,

    There appears to be a flurry of anti-Adams threads following his release without any counterbalance, some emanating from your own pen. It may be unfair, but there’s a whiff of an agenda emerging here.

    If it’s of interest, Boston College History Department has just disavowed the entire project.

    Start of citation:

    ”The history department at Boston College in the US has disowned the archive which it is believed was central to the arrest of Sinn Féin President Gerry Adams last Wednesday.

    It has said that the archive, known as the Belfast Project, “is not and never was a Boston College History Department project”.

    In an open letter signed by each of the past five professors and chairs of the history department at the college since 1997, up to and including the present incumbent Prof Robin Fleming, it acknowledges however that “the project was funded by Boston College” but takes exception to media references to it as a project of “BC historians” and “BC professors.” That, it states, “is fundamentally inaccurate.”

    End of citation.

    http://www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/boston-college-history-department-distances-itself-from-tapes-1.1785452

  • Mick Fealty

    We have that in the video Ana… Dunn is pretty hardcore in damning McIntyre and Moloney…

    As for agendas, that sounds ominously like ‘enemy talk’…

    I can only blog what see as important. And I am always grateful for corrections and additions…

    There’s all sorts of agendas at play in this one… McIntyre’s, BC’s, the PSNI’s and of course SF’s…

    And of course that nice little government cover all, the public interest…

  • http://www.selfhatinggentile.blogger.com tmitch57

    The tweets have the Boston College oral history project as flawed from the start. Why? Because it allowed for alternative republican and loyalist views of history not controlled by Sinn Fein, in which the participants felt beyond the reach of Sinn Fein and the law. It would appear that justice and the law trumps academic enquiry. Hopefully those requesting their tapes back will feel free to resubmit them in the future when some considerable time has passed.

  • Brian Walker

    Mick, The spirit of 98 is sadly much exaggerated to support the Wolfe Tone myth of a true republic. Anyway..

    It will be interesting to see if Boston College’s pledge ( if that’s what it is) to return the tapes to their contributors succeeds or suffers another legal challenge from the PSNI wither back home if repatriated.

    Their value and interest is beyond doubt, despite Sinn Fein’s attempts to rubbish them. But to some extent the horses have bolted. Comparisons with the Bureau of Military History in Dublin are instructive.
    A large commemoration of documents and 13 voice recordings covering the period 1913 – 21 ( but not the civil war) was made between 1947 and 57, locked way to 2001 and realised in 2003. In other words the live material was a minimum of 26 years after the events covered realised after 90 years.

    Not everything is in the sunshine. The eminent historian of the period Charles Townshend records his regret in his latest work, published last year that the Irish government did not give him permission to quote from the Military Service Pensions Archive. His work records a lot of controversy and gaps in the detail about a period that ended over 90 years ago.. And this from an archive that is state controlled unlike Boston College’s.

    Meanwhile the website of the Arkiv group of historians which made a submission to Haass and with which I’m associated carry a blog post that the damage to historical clarification may not be as great as some including one of its sponsors Paul Bew suggested yesterday. For one thing, Arkiv plans to rely on the available written archive first rather than contemporary witness testimony. There was little expectation that many former paramilitaries would offer detailed accounts of their actions under any conceivable conditions. Some might however chose to reply to case accounts culled from the archives ( if any are made available, a moot point). under protection against self incrimination or hold exchanges with victims. But nobody is expecting another Brendan Hughes anytime soon, if ever.

    The Arkiv post which seems tongue in cheek, commends Gerry Adams for saying on his release that we must look to the future. The post infers from this that Sinn Fein will not try to project its current political requirements onto the past but will allow the past to speak to the present on its own terms. So that’s all good.

    http://arkivni.wordpress.com/publications/

  • Morpheus

    The Boston Tapes are completely valueless when it comes to getting anyone anywhere near a courtroom. They are not confessions, they are versions of the truth as seen by those taking part – nothing more, nothing less. Anything said still has to be backed up with verifiable evidence.

    But leaving the whole evidence aspect aside even if they were confessions then Section 76 of PACE deals with challenges to the admissibility of confessions…

    http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/a_to_c/confession_and_breaches_of_police_and_criminal_evidence_act/#Admissibility_of_Confessions

    Were any of The Boston Tapes made under caution? I think not making them valueless. The police knew they had nothing before they had GA in front of them but they also knew that they still had to ask the questions anyway.

    Knee-jerk reaction…again

  • tacapall

    “Were any of The Boston Tapes made under caution? I think not making them valueless”

    So how come Ivor Bell is charged using the Boston tapes “not made under caution” even though I agree with you.

  • Mick Fealty

    Whatever their value Dunn has made it clear he wants it out of the Library and off the campus and back to the respondents.

  • Morpheus

    Tacapall, I don’t know the specifics of the Ivor Bell case but I doubt very much if The Boston Tapes were the sole source of information – verifiable evidence still has to be produced in order to secure a conviction.

    It doesn’t surprise me that the college authorities want the tapes given back to the interviewees – with the court case, the integrity of the college being called into question etc. I am surprised it has taken this long. What should have been a minor academic historical exercise has been blown up out of all proportion in an attempt to ‘Get Gerry’ – quelle surprise.

  • tacapall

    Morpheus you can doubt as much as you like but that wont change the fact that Ivor Bell was charged using the Boston tapes, in fact most people had their money on Adams being charged with membership of the IRA seeing as he, McGuinness and Bell represented the IRA at secret meetings with the British government during the 70s. The British didn’t get the name perfidious albion for nothing.

  • Politico68

    Tacapall, we have no way of knowing exactly what evidence the PSNI have on Bell, nor do we know how much of it came from the tapes. You are assuming a lot.

  • Politico68

    Mick,
    Do you have a quote or link to where Gerry Adams accuses someone as being a ‘Tout’in relation to the Boston Tapes? Just for my own research as I can’t seem to find one.

    Now that the Boston Tapes have been proven to be nothing short of cheap gossip, the whole saga has destroyed the credibility of Ed Moloney, but no surprise his mates in Slugger here are jumping to his defense. Moloney has shown himself to be the type of “Journalist” who is addicted to destruction rather than committed to reconciliation and peace.

    Niall O Dowd tells it how it is……
    “Journalist Ed Moloney has been busy convincing everyone he is the victim in the Boston College tapes fiasco. The reality is different.
    Put frankly, if he hadn’t decided to make some money for himself from his book on the tapes, “Voices from the Grave,” none of the issues that have now arisen around the tapes would have happened. The tapes by now would have quietly become the preserve of academics and historians.
    Moloney’s intent was clear from the beginning. He hired anti-Gerry Adams researcher and dissident spokesman Anthony McIntyre and only interviewed IRA figures who hated Adams for various reasons — hardly the mark of a dispassionate researcher/historian.”

    O’Dowd then goes on to prove his point quoting an exchange from Moloney’s own Blog between Moloney and Unionist writer Walter Ellis….
    “MOLONEY: “Ah Walter! I had thought you dead and gone. Never a losing cause, just keeping my promise to people. If I do have an obsession it is with outing liars, which is why I write about Lance Armstrong! There is another outrageous liar with whom we are both familiar, me perhaps more than you. Wears a beard and used to puff on a pipe a lot. Write about him too.”
    ELLIS: “I hope you’re not suggesting that a certain one-time barkeep, for whom power was the ultimate performance-enhancing drug, will one day soon be stripped of his many titles.”
    MOLONEY: “A former barkeep with a power complex? Whom could you possibly be talking about?”
    Here O’Dowd proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that academia was far from Maloney’s mind and what he really wanted to do was nail Adams. – “OUTING LIARS” .
    In his own blog (link in op) Moloney says this, and please make sure you’re sitting down before you read on …

    “I wish to refute this allegation in the strongest possible terms. It is a slur on my professional integrity as a journalist of over thirty years standing…”

    When I read this comment of Moloney’s I didn’t know whether to puke or just go right ahead and shit myself. What Moloney has single handedly done – for no other reason than hatred of Gerry Adams and to line his own pocket with his book “lies from the Grave” – is to potentially destroy any chance of a similar project ever taking place; effectively killing off at least one possible avenue where victims might have some chance of finding out the truth about the loss of their loved ones. The tapes will be returned, including those made by Loyalists. Now. who is going to agree to come forward and volunteer to talk about the past on foot of Moloney’s botch Job? And then he has the neck to blame Boston College for not fighting the court proceedings adequately when he knew from the very beginning that there was a distinct possibility that the tapes could be lifted.
    In the Guardian on Saturday, Moloney’s Stooge Anthony McIntyre continues the lies with ….

    “I believe Boston College was not fully committed to the protection of its research participants. Its lack of resolve has put both me and the research participants in a position that is close to precarious.

    He goes on lying …..

    “Boston College, with its phalanx of lawyers, failed to warn us or warn the people we interviewed that there were pitfalls. They persistently and adamantly claimed to have covered all bases.”

    On RTE McIntyre was forced to concede that only two of the 26 interviewed were not Anti Sinn Fein. Which does not mean that they were necessarily pro Sinn Fein either?

    And Mick, for the record there was plenty of Good Will and Spirit back in 1998, but it is being slowly torn apart by creatures like Moloney and other commentators whose motives are driven by nothing more than hatred and self- gain, cynically using victims for their own narrow ambitions.

    http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2014/may/03/gerry-adams-ira-anthony-mcintyre-hate-campaign

    http://www.irishcentral.com/news/Boston-College-tapes-was-a-Get-Adams-project-from-the-beginning—.html#ixzz30yYrVOR0

  • Dixie Elliott

    Strangely enough the person ‘touted on’, Adams, has come out of this exceptionally well, in fact with a mural to his ego. He has walked away without being charged and got rid, (hopefully not) of the Boston Tapes while Ivor Bell has been charged.

    I put these questions to Danny Morrison who was spitting “Anthony McIntout” at Mackers over on Jude Collins’ blog he must have missed them because he hasn’t got round to answering…

    “I wonder could Danny explain how you can tout on someone who was never in the IRA?”

    And…

    “In fact Danny by calling Mackers a tout you are confirming Adams was in the IRA and involved in the killing of Jean McConville, otherwise how can you tout on someone for something they weren’t involved in?”

  • Dixie Elliott

    Hi Politico68 what about the credibility of Mary Lou who claimed they squeezed nearly 2,000 into a function room that can’t hold over 500 people? lol

  • Politico68

    I don’t use the term myself so I have no idea what it literally means other than maybe a generic term for someone who tells tales about another. I am sure Danny will get back to you…he can be a bit slow in replying sometimes. It is quite possible to be telling tales or ‘touting’ without the content being accurate maybe.

  • Politico68

    Dixie, LOL. Ya she should be lifted for that one !

  • Politico68

    Dixie, this is for you …

  • http://gravatar.com/joeharron Mister_Joe

    It is very difficult to estimate the number of people in a crowd. I remember the RUC claiming that there were 1000 people at a demonstration whereas the organizers claimed that there were 5000 people. Regardless, that hall was certainly filled to capacity.

  • Granni Trixie

    ’68

    How very predictable of you: people who do not see things like SF are ‘against’ peace and rec plus you add faux concern for victims. We can puke together

    Brian
    I welcome the fact that you have come clean about being associated with the Unionist leaning Arkiv group – Exlains why you keep bigging it up. Interesting too that more has not been made in public discourse about Paul Bews association with the Boston Project (I didn’t realise that he was until you stated that above).

    What Brian and ’68 have in common is that they imply that there are “good historians” that is those who write versions which fit in with theirs. In my experience however we have to take most academics outputs in Ni with a large dose of salts as,disappointingly,few tend to be truely professional/objective. That said, I’m all for recording anybody’s account of what went on during the troubles as comparative material with the goal of the sum being
    greater than the individual parts.

  • Politico68

    Granni, personal attacks are wasted on me, if you cant maturely discuss the issues just dont bother commenting

  • Sp12
  • Morpheus

    Don’t you mean ‘fotashapped so itiz’ SP12?

    :)

  • tacapall

    “Tacapall, we have no way of knowing exactly what evidence the PSNI have on Bell, nor do we know how much of it came from the tapes. You are assuming a lot”

    Maybe you dont know what way membership charges work Politico, Bell has also been charged with aiding and abetting in Jean McConville’s murder using evidence from the Boston tapes -

    http://www.rte.ie/news/2014/0322/603886-jean-mcconville/

    Ivor Bell, 77, is accused of aiding and abetting in the murder as well as membership of the IRA.

    “The court heard police moved against Mr Bell on the basis of an interview he had given researchers compiling a Troubles archive at Boston College in America – tapes a US court ordered to be handed over to the PSNI”

    By the way Politico “He hired anti-Gerry Adams researcher and dissident spokesman Anthony McIntyre”

    What dissident group does Anthony McIntyre speak for because as far as Im aware and the whole world can see for themselves via his blog, he is totally opposed to using violence and speaks for himself alone. Just like Mick and Slugger he allows others to give their views unlike some others who like to spout their mouths off. If truth be told it was violent Sinn Fein members and their supporters who threatened and forced Anthony McIntyre and his young family from their Belfast home after he spoke out about the murder of JoJo O Connor.

  • HopefulPessimist

    ’68 , I don’t think your own post qualifies as mature discussion. To me it reads; they’re all liars and cheats except the people I like, pretty much schoolyard stuff.

  • Politico68

    Hope, the point is I try to offer an analysis of the actuall piece and challng the credibility of the author. I don’t attack fellow sluggers simply because they hold a different view.

  • Politico68

    Tacapall, u are talking about charges there, I am simply pointing out that we don’t know the full details of the evidence available upon which those charges are based. If u have evidence that shows violent shinners intimidated McIntyre you have a duty to report it to the police. However, I suspect u wont be dropping into ur local cop shop soon.

  • Dixie Elliott

    Politico68 this is for you…

    “The Stadium Function room, with a maximum capacity of 960 persons, is to remain on the licence in addition to the new areas 1-6 above. ”

    http://minutes.belfastcity.gov.uk/mgConvert2PDF.aspx?ID=9119

  • Dixie Elliott

    Did anyone notice the Elvis type entrance of Gerry, Marty and Martina in that video complete with minders…

    I was expecting Gerry would go the full hog and start throwing scarves to the audience after his speech…

  • tacapall

    Politico what part of this dont you get –

    “The court heard police moved against Mr Bell on the basis of an interview he had given researchers compiling a Troubles archive at Boston College in America – tapes a US court ordered to be handed over to the PSNI”

    As for the McIntyre answer, I have no duty to report anything to any British police force its Ireland I live in and the only duty I have is to myself and my family. You seem to be forgetting why certain people claimed to have disappeared Jean McConville.

  • Niall Noigiallach

    “Politico68 this is for you…

    “The Stadium Function room, with a maximum capacity of 960 persons, is to remain on the licence in addition to the new areas 1-6 above. ””

    Are you still at this? You went and hoked out their 2009 Entertainments Licence Application? You’ve been spending near 24 actual full hours trying to solve the case of the number of people in the Devenish. I asked you yesterday when you were examining pictures in your dark room how does any of it make your life better?

    “Did anyone notice the Elvis type entrance of Gerry, Marty and Martina in that video complete with minders…

    I was expecting Gerry would go the full hog and start throwing scarves to the audience after his speech”

    No doubt you probobly would have caught one too. Caught it and brought it back to the Batcave so that you and Boy Blunder Charles_Gould could analyse the fabric and prove once for all that it was not in fact a scarf but a coat hanger and that as such Sinn Fein are losing the support of scarves everywhere.

    You might as well start your next Derek Acorah type investigation. Do the minders in the video. For a geg.

    “It’s a well known fact that they aren’t actually minders, they’re robot mannequins manned by a hamster back stage”

  • Politico68

    Niall, LOL ur hilarious, poor Dixie…..

  • Dixie Elliott

    I must say lads if I didn’t know that Statler & Waldork the Muppet Hecklers were only puppets….

    Hold on…

  • Dixie Elliott

    “How dare they arrest our leader.!”

    “Fuck up Bobby the rest of the wing’s trying to sleep.”

    “We haven’t gone away you know! ”

    “That’s it I’m buzzing the Nurse!”

  • Politico68

    Dixie,

    Statler and Waldork ? Dunno who or what that is, will ay google it for me? Maybe get a picture too?

  • http://www.selfhatinggentile.blogger.com tmitch57

    “Niall O Dowd tells it how it is……
    “Journalist Ed Moloney has been busy convincing everyone he is the victim in the Boston College tapes fiasco. The reality is different.
    Put frankly, if he hadn’t decided to make some money for himself from his book on the tapes, “Voices from the Grave,” none of the issues that have now arisen around the tapes would have happened. The tapes by now would have quietly become the preserve of academics and historians.
    Moloney’s intent was clear from the beginning. He hired anti-Gerry Adams researcher and dissident spokesman Anthony McIntyre and only interviewed IRA figures who hated”

    @politico68,

    I think this is an example of professional jealousy by someone who is not nearly as highly regarded as Moloney when it comes to writing about NI. What books has O’Dowd written? From my reading of O’Dowds paper back in the mid-1990s he was basically a mouthpiece for Sinn Fein.

    I don’t know what Moloney’s intentions were when he planned the project. But he did keep his word to both Ervine and Hughes–the material was released after their deaths. Moloney shouldn’t have counted on an academic project being above the law. Journalists are continually cited for obstruction of justice for not naming sources when they are questioned under oath. The media’s right to make money off of providing news and entertainment doesn’t trump the public’s right for protection against criminals. And under the GFA all persons who committed crimes that weren’t prosecuted are still liable for a two-year sentence.

    Out of curiosity, does anyone know who the interviewer was for the UVF participants?

  • Politico68

    tmitch, I have been studying politics at University for the last five years. When we conduct research we can use pretty much any source we want however, the sources have to be deemed academically credible. Ed Moloney is so far out of that group he might as well be sitting on Mars. In all my studies of Irish history and politics- particularly the north- and in the dozens of books recommended as acceptable sourcing by both UCD and TCD, Ed Moloney is not even mentioned. He might have made more money than O’Dowd with his tabloid trash, and if he is highly regarded, it is certainly not by esteemed Historians or University professors, thats for sure.

  • Reader

    Politico68: Niall, LOL ur hilarious, poor Dixie…..
    Hilarious? It’s an evasion and a distraction; and nasty with it – playground stuff.

  • Politico68

    Reader-

    Chillax will ya, a bit of harmless banter never hurt anyone

  • Dixie Elliott

    LOL amusing stuff indeed….

    In regards to journalism comparing Niall O’Dowd to Ed Moloney is like comparing Tesco’s own brand burgers to Sirloin Steak…

    Ed Moloney has proven correct in much of his stuff over the years, take for example The 1987 Brian Nelson / Gerry Adams case…The Recent De Silva Report backed up what Ed had been saying years beforehand:

    [...] “There is other evidence suggesting that the FRU was acutely aware of the secret progress being made in the peace process at around this time. Steaknife was not the only IRA figure whose life the unit saved.

    Thanks to Brian Nelson, Army intelligence learnt that the UDA planned to kill Mr Adams by placing a limpet mine on the roof of his armoured car as he was being driven in Belfast. FRU arranged for the limpet mine to be discovered in a routine security search and Mr Adams lived to deliver the IRA ceasefires.

    Writing about this incident later in his private journal, Brian Nelson said that his handlers had told him that assassinating Mr Adams would have been “totally counterproductive. Adams and his supporters were committed to following the political path.” [...]

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/personal-view/3578340/Panorama-missed-the-real-story-of-collusion-in-Ulster.html

  • http://www.selfhatinggentile.blogger.com tmitch57

    @politco68,

    So humor me, which journalists presently writing about NI and having written about The Troubles are highly regarded by your professors?

  • Reader

    Politico68: Chillax will ya, a bit of harmless banter never hurt anyone
    Whenever I hear that in real life I know I’m in the wrong pub.

  • NiallStanage

    TMitch: In answer to your question, the loyalist interviewer was Wilson McArthur. He is described in “Voices from the Grave” as “a Shankill Road, former PUP activist and a political science graduate of [QUB].”

  • http://www.selfhatinggentile.blogger.com tmitch57

    @Niall,
    Thanks. I have the book. I just forgot.

  • Dixie Elliott

    tmitch57 asked @politco68,

    “So humor me, which journalists presently writing about NI and having written about The Troubles are highly regarded by your professors?”

    Jim Gibney and Squinter?…Danny with the Bush Hat for those students who get drunk and give the University a bad name as a sort of short sharp shock punishment?

  • Politico68

    tmitch,

    Doctor Jennifer Todd is the head honcho in the UCD politics department and heads up the current Syllabus on NI.

    You can find dozens of her papers online, referencing hundreds of Authors, Journalists and commentators, do the research if you have the time, she cites every source professionally and links them to further reading. Any and all Journalists will be found in her publications. If you can find Ed in there (I certainly can’t) you can be sure it will be in the context of negative peace rather than positive.

    I vaguely remember the Institute for British Irish studies at UCD publishing a paper two years ago regarding obstacles to peaceful settlement. I think Ed the ball was cited there once out of maybe a hundred others. It was one of the (also ran) citations.

  • http://www.selfhatinggentile.blogger.com tmitch57

    politico68,

    As it happens I have a book of conference papers in which Prof. Todd presented a paper. I looked up all her citations–they were all academic, not a single journalist among them that I could see. As a university student you should understand that comparing journalists and academics is like comparing apples and oranges. Journalists write for a very broad audience, often dumb-down the material to make it accessible, and are paid for covering fresh news. Academics write mainly for a small audience of fellow academics in their own field and publish in academic journals that are largely purchased by academic libraries, tend to use jargon sometimes to make their material inaccessible and incomprehensible to outsiders, and are paid for advancing the theory in their field and producing original research. They may teach basic undergraduate courses with a broader audience but much of that is handled by teaching assistants and adjunct professors–those without tenure-track positions.

    In addition to Moloney I read David McKittrick, Henry McDonald, and Brian Rowan on a regular basis.